CAD for Assurance of Electronic Systems

MERS: Multiple Excitation of Rare Switching

By: Yuanwen Huang, Swarup Bhunia, and Prabhat Mishra

Stage: Production and Test


MERS is a statistical test generation tool written in C for generating a corpus of logic test patterns aimed at maximizing the effectiveness of side-channel analysis for a given sample of potential Trojans in a target gate-level netlist.  For each Trojan in the sampled population of potential Trojans for a given design, MERS generates test patterns to maximize switching activity of the Trojan while minimizing switching activity in the surrounding circuit.  The resulting test patterns can be used in tandem with side-channel analysis to identify potential Trojans in a design.


Prabhat Mishra

Input/Output Interface

  • Input: Gate-level Netlist (Verilog)
  • Output: Test Patterns


Onespin -or- Synopsys TetraMAX -or- JasperGold

Licensing Info

Copyright 2020 University of Florida. Please contact for licensing options.


Huang, Yuanwen; Bhunia, Swarup; Mishra, Prabhat

MERS: Statistical Test Generation for Side-Channel Analysis Based Trojan Detection Proceedings Article

In: Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pp. 130–141, Association for Computing Machinery, Vienna, Austria, 2016, ISBN: 9781450341394.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX


  • National Science Foundation (1441667, 1603475, 1603483),
  • Semiconductor Research Corporation (2014-TS-2554)
  • Cisco Systems (F020375)